Kosovo - what might 'Ahtisaari Plus' look like?

Kosovo – what might ‘Ahtisaari Plus’ look like?

An ‘Ahtisaari Plus’ approach, offering a form of special autonomy for the north, could provide the basis for a compromise between Belgrade and Pristina; one that might also win sufficient support from the northern Kosovo Serbs to be viable.

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By Gerard Gallucci

I have frequently referred, here and elsewhere, to a possible political solution for north Kosovo that I have called “Ahtisaari Plus.” By this I meant to refer to a form of special autonomy for the north that is less than that of the Serb entity in Bosnia-Herzegovina, but more than outlined in the original Ahtisaari Plan. It would be meant to preserve the status quo on the ground in the north – local self-government supported by Serbia and free of interference from Pristina – while also linking to the overall legal and political framework of Kosovo. Such an arrangement would offer an outcome in lieu of outright partition or simply allowing the current frozen conflict to continue.

I have in the past suggested how the Ahtisaari Plan could befixed to make it more acceptable to the Kosovo Serbs in the north. These “fixes” essentially consisted of substituting internationals in those places in the Plan that would require the Serbs to accept a significant controlling influence of the central institutions in Pristina in sensitive areas, such as the courts and police, review of municipal decisions, and financial support from Serbia. Now, I would like to suggest what might be done with the plan to make it acceptable for the northern Serbs, yet also meeting the requirement to keep the north as part of Kosovo – i.e., Ahtisaari Plus. This will leave aside the question of the status of Kosovo and matters directly related to status such as customs, however they are or are not resolved. It also minimizes the role of internationals.

First, it bears repeating that the Ahtisaari Plan already provides a firm basis for minority and cultural rights and participation in government, decentralized local government and linkages between Serbian-majority municipalities and with Belgrade. It also provides special competences in secondary healthcare and higher education for North Mitrovica. The “Plus” approach would build on this by removing the central government’s ability to interfere with local self-rule and with linkages and financing from Belgrade. It would retain, however, the requirement for Serb majority municipalities to function nominally as Kosovo municipalities – including holding elections within the common Kosovo-wide framework – and for participation in the national assembly, as prescribed in Article Three of Annex I of the Plan (which provides for at least 20 seats reserved for “minorities” out of the 120 total).

Local autonomy would be rather complete. The north, at least, would have its own division of the Kosovo Police wearing the common uniform and interfacing with the Kosovo Police administrative system. The applicable law would be either UNMIK regulations or Serbian law. Local courts would be administered as part of the Serbian justice system. Conflicts of law or cases crossing the Ibar River would be resolved in a special Kosovo appeals court made up of an equal number of judges chosen by each side, under the chair of an international agreeable to both. Cadaster and identification documents would be as agreed in the ongoing dialogue.

As specific departures from the Ahtisaari Plan, Serbian-majority municipalities would be obliged to report the financing received from outside Kosovo to central authorities, but could receive the funding directly into bank accounts that may or may not be certified by the Kosovo Central Bank (this adjusts Article 11 of Annex Three of the Plan). Municipalities would regularly report their budgets and decisions to Pristina. But Pristina would not have any authority to review, set standards for, suspend or nullify decisions or actions of a purely local nature as defined by the Ahtisaari Plan. The municipalities would otherwise act as municipalities of Kosovo, including receiving the funding determined by the Plan. The workings of the municipalities would be subject to maintaining European standards and independent audit. Education would function administratively as part of the Serbian system.

As noted, municipal elections would be synchronized with those held Kosovo-wide (though run at the local level by the municipalities themselves). Individual Kosovo Serbs serving in the central government would forego any salary from Belgrade. There would be no other elections held in Kosovo, though there might be the ability for voting elsewhere, depending on a status agreement allowing dual citizenship. Kosovo Serb members of the national assembly might also take up seats in government. Indeed, they might well become much-sought-after coalition partners.

This is simply one outline of what an Ahtisaari Plus approach might look like. It leaves out not only the final status elements but also resolution of economic and property issues which would be key to a full settlement. But it might offer a basis for reaching a compromise between Belgrade and Pristina that might also win sufficient support from the northern Kosovo Serbs to be viable. The northern Serbs universally reject Kosovo independence and most would prefer partition and remaining in Serbia. They remain very distrustful of Pristina and the Albanians.

As I have noted previously, Pristina’s international sponsors hold the main cards. They may have to decide which outcome they prefer – northern autonomy within Kosovo or partition. The alternatives seem limited to continued frozen conflict or renewed violence. Simply pressing Serbia to surrender the north may not be sufficient policy.

Gerard M. Gallucci is a retired US diplomat and UN peacekeeper. He worked as part of US efforts to resolve the conflicts in Angola, South Africa and Sudan and as Director for Inter-American Affairs at the National Security Council. He served as UN Regional Representative in Mitrovica, Kosovo from July 2005 until October 2008 and as Chief of Staff for the UN mission in East Timor from November 2008 until June 2010. He has a PhD in political science, taught at the University of Pittsburgh, University of Arkansas, George Washington University and Drake University and now works as an independent consultant.


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29 Responses

  1. Mike P.

    This is just over complicating a very simple problem. Just as Albanians do not wish to live under Serb rule.Serbs in Kososvo do not wish to live under Albanian rule. The international community intervened on behalf of the Albanians to “protect” them from Serb “agression”. However when Albanians attack Serbs all sorts of excuses are made for their behavior,and nobody sees the need to allow those Serbs to break free of Albanian domination.At the end of the day this is a simple matter of divorce.Except that in this case one spouse(Serbs) want to leave, and the other spouse(Albanians) want to keep Serbs in an unhappy marriage. I think that the Balkans will be far better off if borders were drawn along ethnic lines.Lets face it every group that wanted to break free of “Serb domination”and did so now insists on dominating whatever Serbs are left among them.If the world really champions the cause of self determination then it should do so for all and not just some.I am by the way also for all Croats living in one state as well as all”Bosniaks” and Albanians being allowed to live in an ethniclly homogenous state.Why not? If Balkan borders were to be redrawn all of the said states would be forced to concede some territory to the others but the net result would be that their countries would end up roughly the same size because they would also gain land from other states(think of it as a swap) and they would have the added benefit of living with their own kind.The world could stop wasting time and money trying to get them all to behave.Just the fact that there needs to be foreign military presence should tell you that the present solution is anything but satisfactory. Then again if there was peace then we would have nobody to sell weapons to.Bad for business I guess!

  2. Dida

    I think you are making not fair comparisons here…Serbs did suppress over 20 years Albanians on all aspects-political education and social levels! Which is not the case now with Serbs who are welcomed to be part of Kosovo institutions or go back at their place of origin if they did not take place in a crimes against their neighbors.If you read the laws on human rights you will clearly see that it meets the all international standards. Even though Albanian community is 95% the official use of language beside Albanian is Serb and Turkish as well. I wonder how does it work in US, how many official languages are there? It is much more complicated than you think and has broader effect,which has been endorsed by politics and diplomacies bargaining between each other on somebodies misfortune -is all politics and as usual the innocent community from both sides suffers it the most!

  3. K-FOR Soldier

    Why place internationals into government-like slots?
    Are we helping Kosovo stand on her own feet, or creating precedent for some form of qasui-world government? Kosovo’s problems MUST BE solved by Kosovars to have long standing validity.
    Kosovo used to be an ‘autonomous region’ itself. How much further can you partition down a state as small as Kosovo? This plan would only strengthen ethnic differences and reinforce separation of the two major groups of people in the area, instead of getting them to work together. The problems with autonomous regions is the central government can remove that status whenever the ‘autonomous’ region doesn’t behave as a good lap dog should. This is essentially what happened to Kosovo when she was still a part of Serbia. Had Serbia not removed this status, she might still have hold of Kosovo. Has Serbia not tried to impose a form of this status on the rest of the former states of Yugoslavia, she might have held Yugoslavia together.
    The reality on the ground in Kosovo is she is an independence nation, backed by some powerful world influences like the USA, UK, France, German, Japan and others.
    The idea of parsing Kosovo into sections that are separate but equal is not in the long term interests of a nation trying to establish itself and be a legitimate world actor. “Separate-but-equal” has never worked long term anywhere in the world it has been tried.
    Separating the north of Kosovo will prove no different long term and is a defeatist approach to a problem that was sewn sometime in the 6th century when Slavs first arrived in the Balkans.
    The only people who can solve this issue are the local Kosovars themselves. They don’t need ideas imposed on them by foreigners. They had a few centuries of this under the Ottomans, and it did not turn out too well for the Ottomans long-term.

  4. Pingback : Lajme Shqip nga COMEZE, një formë tjetër e lajmit.. - UN:Autonomi për veriun e Kosovës!!!! Emri i planit “Atisaari Plus”

  5. Srbin

    Woahh some of these comments are ridiculous. First of all there is no such thing as a Kosovar, second the albanians aka so called kosovars accepted The ottomans my friend that’s why they are muslims today. The big powers don’t care about none of the people in kosovo what they really want is to take all the riches there which can last for more than 1000 years. They are happy that we are arguing and fighting each other. If kosovo was so independent why is all of Europe there; to take a peace of land for themselves, it has nothing to do with self determination. As far as the ahtisaari plan goes, who gave him the right to make plans for the people of kosovo, certainly not the people there. Ahtisaari is a Fascist from Finland working for Germany to humiliate the Serbian people and take their land, so no to Ahtisaari he needs to go to Africa make peace plans overthere………………. thank you and goodbye

  6. Amer

    You want to offer special rights to a minority of the Serbs in Kosovo in exchange for – what? You’re even explicitly ruling out that Pristina get recognition under the deal.

    As for participation by Serbs in the Kosovo national assembly, it sounds like you don’t realize they are already participating. The Serb Deputy Prime Minister was in Tirana just the other day discussing “strengthening mutual relations.” Rada Trajkovic now speaks as a Serb leader and as a member of parliament. For 6-7% of the population, if that, the Serbs are not doing badly.

    For the Albanians, a frozen conflict would be a better deal than your Ahtisaari Plus. Give Belgrade time to decide just how much it wants EU membership, and whether maintaining the local power structure in the North of Kosovo in office is worth the wait.

    Dusan Janic said yesterday in Danas that “Feith is now saying what the government in Belgrade has to tell its citizens, because November this year is the deadline Boris Tadic was given two years ago when he promised the EU and the US that he would find a solution for the North of KiM that would satisfy Brussels and Washington.” Belgrade may have less room for maneuver than you assume.

  7. Just to clear up a few matters.

    I don’t mean by this piece to be arguing for or against anything, neither partition nor special autonomy inside Kosovo’s borders. This should be for the people involved to decide without bullying or fear-mongering from the “great powers.”

    The version of A+ I present here seeks to minimize the international role as it seems clear to me that the US and EU plan to clean their hands of “mentoring” Kosovo as soon as they can.

    The A+ approach might work either in the context of a status agreement (including some form of recognition) or while one is still in abeyance. Indeed, an A+ type of approach along the lines I suggest here might make recognition by Serbia easier as it would get to keep a foot in the door. Perhaps it will take a “dual sovereignty” framework to allow everyone to move forward into Europe?

  8. K-For soldier,
    You state: The reality on the ground in Kosovo is she is an independence nation, backed by some powerful world influences like the USA, UK, France, German, Japan and others.

    I have no idea how long you have spent in Kosovo or how much you actually know how the situation is in the North when you sate that Kosovo is independent? Can I ask you how much control Pristina has over the north of the Ibar?

    Then we read from other countries that serbia must recognise Kosovos independence in order to gain membership of the wonderful circus AKA the EULEX.Can anyone explain why so little progress has been made since EULEX joined the circus? The reality on the ground in Kosovo is that certain undesireable individuals continue to exert considerable influence within the Kosovo government and yet no or very little action is remedy the situation. The same can be said regarding north of the Ibar, where the undesirables continue to prosper while the decent law abiding citezens go try to live a normal life with “no extra” income.

    Give Belgrade time to decide just how much it wants EU membership, and whether maintaining the local power structure in the North of Kosovo in office is worth the wait.

  9. Nikola

    Jerry you said…

    “The version of A+ I present here seeks to minimize the international role as it seems clear to me that the US and EU plan to clean their hands of “mentoring” Kosovo as soon as they can.”

    The “international role” is the only reason Kosovo is not 100% ruled by Serbia today. If the “international community” (which really means the fading western powers) pulled out, then the plug is pulled for this failed project of a second Albanian country.

    The only “reality” on the ground is Serbs do not want to be ruled by Albanians as much as Albanians do not want to live under Serbia. The simple solution is a REAL partition. Serbs south of the Ibar should all go to 2 points throughout Kosovo, Gracanica & Strpce. These parts are to be entirely ruled by the state of Serbia with no authority from Pristina or the “international community”. And the remaining monasteries and churches that are scattered throughout the province are given special status and guarded by K-For troops (with Serbs involved in those missions) and once again out of reach for Pristina.

    This conclusion leads to more than autonomy, less than independence. If both sides agree to this, Serbia recognizes “Kosovo” documents and allows its goods to be exported in the rest of Serbia. Meanwhile, Kosovo does not get membership into the UN as an independent country, but is allowed to have its officials and flags present at meetings without Serbian government officials leaving these meetings in protest. An agreement on freedom of movement throughout the territory, recognition of license plates & university diplomas would also be agreed by both sides.

    “Giving” Serbia Northern Kosovo is not saying anything. There is no way that region will be ruled by Albanians that is a lost cause for Pristina just as its a lost cause for Serbia to rule over all of Kosovo. Serbia does not and shouldn’t even want to rule over Albanians. Let them rule themselves in the black hole of Europe. However the Serbs who are there in enclaves cannot be left out. Gracanica and Strpce need to remain ruled by Belgrade, as well as Churches and monasteries ruled by the SPC.

    I would like that to be the basis of the agreement between both sides. And if it is, watch what happens when Northern Kosovo, Strpce & Gracanica become the nicest, most modern and well developed places in Kosovo in 10 years time.

    These sir, are real compromises.

    Nema Predaje

  10. Mike P.

    Dida, be honest here. My family in Kosovo was not treated well by your people even well before Tito died. So because Albanians “suffered” under Serb domination for 20 years as you say they then deserve “freedom”, but since Serbs in Kosovo have suffered for only 12 years they do not? What kind of logic is that? I want to remind you that Albanians were always welcome to be loyal citizens of Serbia as well.There are plenty of non-Serb people living in Serbia with no problems at all. Even today Serbia is the most multiethnic state in the Balkans. How about Kosovo? How about Albania? How about Western Macedonia? Only Albanians are welcome there. Do I need to remind you about the poor Bulgarian man who was killed by Albanians in Kosovo because when he spoke Bulgarian and the local crazies thought he was speaking Serbian so they killed him.Is this your idea of tolerance? Please spare me your propaganda! I don’t care what the new Kosovo laws say they were written by foreigners and they have yet to be respected by your people. Albanians in Serbian Kosovo decided not to assimilate,learn the language,serve in the army,participate in govt.,pay tax or do anything that a normal citizen of any country would do.The few who did were attacked and killed by their own kind.Too many examples to list here.They did however take plenty of Serbian tax money to develop the places where they made up a majority. You will of course disagree because that is what you have been taught, but I would say to you go visit Belgrade and you will meet many Albanians who love Serbia and are treated with respect and dignity. Whereas a Serb has to fear for his/her life in Pristina.They can not even go outside with out military escort.I am quite sure that most Albanians would gladly give up North Mitrovica in exchange for the Presevo Valley. It is a solution that would work. If Serbs and Albanians could not co-exist in Serbia why do you think that they will be able to do so in “independent” Kosovo? You my friend need to stop looking at the world from your narrow perspective.I am willing to admit that Serbs have not always acted perfectly how about you? Is there such thing as an innocent Serb victim in your eyes? Is it possible that there are Albanians who are criminals,mafiosos,murderers? or are you all angels and “victims” asyou would likie the world to think? It’s time to end this nonsense and put all the animals in a seperate cage(partition among ethnic lines)! The world has more pressing concerns to deal with!

  11. Dida

    Hey Mike, thanks for your comments, Just a quick question have you ever been recently to Prishtina? I guess not.I have to tell you that I do have lots of Serbian friends and I am totally open, have no prejudice on ethnic background or what so ever…Before everything we are human beings the rest comes after ‘I can forgive, but I won’t forget’ – this is my answer to everything happened in Kosovo, so stop making the comparisons between individual cases and organized ethnic cleansing and genocides–please spare me of your patronization I am one who suffered the war. The EU proclaims the states without borders, and we want to reshape our borders, where is this leading to…Mr.Gallucci gave one possible solution here on which I do not necessarily agree on!I am not for ethnic states, that does not exist in reality. Take it easy Mike, we are the world too!

  12. George

    from my perspective looks like not much has changed over there, colors of the flags, and who gets to first pick’ins from the pot at best. Peace and prosperity are a far flung reality, much like our forgotten notion of brotherhood and unity. Lets get serious, we like it like this. it numbs the existential malaise which is virtually pandemic amongst our Balkan types. I have no state solutions, accepting simple human realities, like respecting life might bring a change, but that would not be nearly as much fun.

  13. Mike P.

    Dida, I congratulate you for being a tolerant person and I know many Albanians who are good respectable people,but the fact is that Kosovo is now run by people who are anti-Serb and Serbs there still fear for their safety. You are trying to paint a picture that Serbs are as free/safe in Kosovo as they would be in Belgrade.This is not at all true.I have not been to Kosovo since the war ended but my family that just left there within the last year tells me how horrible their life was in “free Kosovo”!We can have different opinions but we can not have different facts. I wish you well

  14. Dardan

    If Albanians could live with Serbia in Presevo,Medvedja, Bujanovac and Novi Pazar why not Serbs love in Kosovo in Northern Mitrovica and Zvecani…

  15. Iustitiae

    So strange…….
    Strange how Albanians and Serbians can get together to earn some money (Arkan was deployed to Pristhina together with other Serb paramilitary units in 1999 – thus not successfully as he earned too much money cooperating with Albanian criminals).
    Strange how Albanians and Serbians lived quite well together in Yugoslavia, before Slobo used Serb nationalism to obtain and stay in power. When Tito died the acting president of Yugoslavia was a Kosovo Albanian.
    Strange how Albanian miners probably where the last ones to strike and defend the integrity of Yugoslavia.
    Strange how inhuman Serbs from proper Serbia treated their “brothers” from Kosovo. With Their Backs To The World: Portraits From Serbia, by Asne Seierstad we can read about K. Serbs living as refuges. It is heartbreaking to read how mistreated they are by Serbs from proper Serbia. At a local café a sign is put up, rejecting Kosovo Serbs to enter the café.
    Strange how positive discriminated Serbs and other minorities in Kosovo are, as they have a higher representation in parliament and other Kosovo intuitions’ when you look at the actual percentage of the population they represent.
    Strange how a lot of Kosovo Serbs in North Mitrovica receive salaries from Serbia and from Kosovo (Albanian government). It must be awful to reject the government in Pristina, but still take their money.
    Strange how Serbian interest from Belgrade is influencing and upholding Serbian parallel structures in North Mitrovica/north Kosovo. It seems like this is the main reason why cooperation and integration on the ground in Kosovo is not happening.
    This is something Gerard Gallucci should be well aware of, as he has helped these parallel structures to thrive when he where stationed in Kosovo. KFOR divided Mitrovica from 1999 in order to manage to provide security on a short term basis. However, UNMIK was not able to create a political solution. When the majority of the population in Kosovo declared independence (as the Montenegrins also did) the physical division of Kosovo was upheld. I feel sorry for KFOR that where butfucked by UNMIK. KFOR main task from 1999 where to establish a secure environment for UNMIK to carry out its work. Now KFOR seems stuck in Kosovo.
    Strange how all Serbians lived together in Yugoslavia, and then the Serbs started a war with the Slovaks, the Croats, the Bosnians’ and the Kosovo Albanians. The Macedonians then the Montenegro voted to divorce Serbia. Vojvodina would be more than happy to leave Serbia.
    Strange how nobody in former Yugoslavia wants to stay in a union with Serbia.
    Strange how all these countries strive to join EU.
    Strange they might all be together again in a new union EU. Will Serbia then start another war to create greater Serbia again?

    Strange……………

  16. Iustitiae

    So strange…….
    Strange how Albanians and Serbians can get together to earn some money (Arkan was deployed to Pristhina together with other Serb paramilitary units in 1999 – thus not successfully as he earned too much money cooperating with Albanian criminals).
    Strange how Albanians and Serbians lived quite well together in Yugoslavia, before Slobo used Serb nationalism to obtain and stay in power. When Tito died the acting president of Yugoslavia was a Kosovo Albanian.
    Strange how Albanian miners probably where the last ones to strike and defend the integrity of Yugoslavia.
    Strange how inhuman Serbs from proper Serbia treated their “brothers” from Kosovo. With Their Backs To The World: Portraits From Serbia, by Asne Seierstad we can read about K. Serbs living as refuges. It is heartbreaking to read how mistreated they are by Serbs from proper Serbia. At a local café a sign is put up, rejecting Kosovo Serbs to enter the café.
    Strange how positive discriminated Serbs and other minorities in Kosovo are, as they have a higher representation in parliament and other Kosovo intuitions’ when you look at the actual percentage of the population they represent.
    Strange how a lot of Kosovo Serbs in North Mitrovica receive salaries from Serbia and from Kosovo (Albanian government). It must be awful to reject the government in Pristina, but still take their money.
    Strange how Serbian interest from Belgrade is influencing and upholding Serbian parallel structures in North Mitrovica/north Kosovo. It seems like this is the main reason why cooperation and integration on the ground in Kosovo is not happening.
    This is something Gerard Gallucci should be well aware of, as he has helped these parallel structures to thrive when he where stationed in Kosovo. KFOR divided Mitrovica from 1999 in order to manage to provide security on a short term basis. However, UNMIK was not able to create a political solution. When the majority of the population in Kosovo declared independence (as the Montenegrins also did) the physical division of Kosovo was upheld. I feel sorry for KFOR that where butfucked by UNMIK. KFOR main task from 1999 where to establish a secure environment for UNMIK to carry out its work. Now KFOR seems stuck in Kosovo.
    Strange how all Serbians lived together in Yugoslavia, the Serbs started a war with the Slovaks, the Croats, the Bosnians’ and the Kosovo Albanians. The Macedonians then the Montenegro voted to divorce Serbia. Vojvodina would be more than happy to leave Serbia.
    Strange how nobody in former Yugoslavia wants to stay in a union with Serbia.
    Strange how all these countries strive to join EU.
    Strange they might all be together again in a new union EU. Will Serbia then start another war to create greater Serbia again?

    Strange……………

  17. righteous

    lustitiae these are desperate attempts to sound smart and if you want to do so at least know names of republics , slovakia was never in yugoslavia i think you ment slovenia and i dont want to write book long text here tho i could but your lack of knowledge demotivates me to do so. Everything i have to say is just so someone who will read this and doesnt know things except for propaganda doesnt belive what you say , all you’ve said in your comment is ridiculously untrue and noone should belive that load of bull you wrote.

  18. Jonny

    Are u kidding me: poor albanians? since the time they got to balkans they are trying to create Great albania…check the demographics in Macedonia, Greece and Montenegro, also check the crime rate done by albanians
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Albania
    I have family member who was married to albanian, they own ppl kill him because he was married to serbian girl when he went to tell them that they will get a child…you DONT wanna live with other ppl because you are stealing other ppls land and you are afraid that one day they will take back what u stole

  19. Arhangel Mihajlo

    It is quite astonishing, that after this article was published, Albanians did the very essential to make sure A+ is not an option any more. By insisting on installing their customs.

    This is just an example of the real root problem: Albanians don’t want to live in a multi-ethnic society. Of course, they pass laws to prove the opposite, since they know that thy would loose the western support. But their actions uncover their hidden agenda.

    If they wanted wanted to, they would not need to leave Serbia, for they had all the freedom and autonomy a minority can dream of.

    A+ plus plan seems like a good starting point for conflict resolution, but seems unacceptable to Albanians, since it does not address their hidden agenda.

    As long as Albanian mentors, do not recognize this, and pressure Albanians to give up the dream of single ethnicity Kosovo, there will be no real solution.

    Late Patriarch Pavle wisely noted the essential difference between Albanians in Serbia and Macedonia. In Macedonia, Albanians considered themselves as Macedonians. In Serbia they don’t consider themselves as Serbians.

    Serbs in Kosovo did not get extinguished by 5 centuries of Muslim occupation, so I believe, they will withstand at least another 5…

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